Christian Chivu turned out for both the Romania u18 and u21 teams before he was Called up to the senior team. The versatile defender played for the u18 team netting once in 12 appearances in the process. He was in the Romania u18 team from 1997 to 1998. Christian Chivu graduated to the Romania u21 team and he was with the team over a two-year period from 1998 to 2000.

Romania senior national team extended invitation to Christian Chivuas he was swiftly upgraded to the team from the junior level. Chivu was part of the team that won the Cyprus International Football tournament in Dubai in 2001.

Christian Chivu made four caps for his country before the Euro 2000 tournament. He was a regular for Romania at Euro 2000 despite his relatively small experience. Chivu made four appearances for the Romania senior team before Euro 2000.At the Euro 2000 tournament, Christian Chivu scored once in four appearances.

Chivu and Romania missed out on the Euro 2004 tournament, but they were back for the Euro 2008 tournament. Christian Chivu had a lot of rave reviews for his performances at the tournament as he helped keep world champions Italy and runners-up France at bay despite the fact that he was not used either as a left-back or as a centre back. Chivu was played in an unfamiliar holding midfield role. He was the Romania captain during the 2010 FIFA World Cup tournament qualifiers in the European section, but the versatile defender was unable to prevent his country from finishing fifth in their qualifying group. Chivu and Romania missed out on the FIFA World Cup tournament in South Africa as a result.

On May 21, 2011, Christian Chivu announced his retirement from international football after a return of three goals in 75 appearances.